untrm t the Althel'ne

been thought of purely as a source of recre- ation and entertainment. Children, in partic- ular, took great delight in watching the ani- mals. Isolated voices over the years had tried to get the board to think of the zoo in a dif- ferent way. Zoos could be centres of educa- tion and research about animals and their habitats. The great zoos of Europe and the United States were museums of the animal kingdom where species were preserved, their habits observed, documented, and in- terpreted to the public. In addition to their undeniable role as providers of ergertain- ment, zoos were pg of the network of uni- versities, museums andgresearch centres that produced knowledge about the natural

1:, c. 170 D."

world. This was the vi- sion that I-Iodgson had for me Winnipeg zoo: to transform it from a motley collection of an- imals indifferently housed to a modern professional zoo. The transformation did not happen overnight but it did happen.

In 1949, White had gathered together "a number of prominent gentlemen" who were interested in promot- ing improvements to the zoo.“ These men in- cluded Professor R. K. Stewart-Hay, Dr. A. Savage and Professor R. Glover of the Uni- versity of Manitoba. Stewart-Hay was a zoo]- ogist and Savage was an animal patthlbgist. The committee also included Gerald Malaher, provincial director of Game and Fisheries anfl L.T.S. Norris-Elye, curator of the Mani- toba Museum. Among other activities, this committee compiled research on the mam- mals of Manitoba which included 78 species and 30 sub-species plus 12 varieties of upland game birds. In 1950 the 13an apprgved a new comprehensive five year plan for im- proving the zoo. This emphasized the collec- tion of animals indigenous to Manitoba and

We REVIEW: E

ofitlined needed changes to the facilities and staff. In 1952, John Wallace, an architect with the St. Louis Zoo, agreed to design a master plan for tlie enlargement of the zoo. That same year, the board negotiated with the Town of Tuxedo for an additional parcel of land in order to accommodate the zoo expan- sion.9 Staffing at the zoo was examined and a classificatiqp scheme put in place. Meanwhile the zoo was capitalizing on a new opportu- nity for publicity. Lion cubsChad been born June 7, 1952 and Winnipeg children were hungry to see them and hear about them. An increased appropriation for the zoo that year allowed the lion house to be enlarged and there were new yards for the hoof stock; a great deal of painting and repair work took place as well. The next year R. Sutton, a part-time curator, was hired to supervise the three zoo-keepers. The lion cubs grew too big for the enclosure and were traded to the Seat- tle Zoo. Their place in the limgliglit was taken by two polar bear cubs from York Factory. In 1954 the zoo expansion plans were set back by the defeat of the parks by-law and the fact that the new curator had to leave his position. However, the City Council dictprovide $50,000 to buy the latE for the western exten— sion.

Hodgson continued to seek advice from other zoos. With help from those in Chicago, Seattle and Milwaukee, Winnipeg architects